Extended Bibliography

173 references, last updated Thu Jul 23 20:24:56 1998

William James Adams and Janet L. Yellen. Commodity bundling and the burden of monopoly. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 90(3):475-498, 1976.

Chris Allbriton. The future of the Web? two men's paths tell tale. Associated Press, Jan 1998.

Ross Anderson and Markus Kuhn. Tamper resistance --- a cautionary note. In Doug Tygar et. al., editor, The Second USENIX Workshop on Electronic Commerce Proceedings, pages 1-11. USENIX, 1996. http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/users/rja14/tamper.html.

R. J. Anderson. Liability and computer security: Nine principles. In ESORICS 94, volume 875, pages 231-245. Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1994. http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~rja14/.

R. J Anderson. Why cryptosystems fail. Communications of the ACM, pages 32-40, 1994. http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~rja14/.

Julia Angwin. Mcafee sweeps away viruses. San Francisco Chronicle, 14 August 1997.

Anon. Cordless confusion. Wall Street Journal, Sept. 11 1997.

Anon. New standards for modems may spur sales. Wall Street Journal, Feb. 6 1998.

Anonymous. Hi ho, hi ho, down the data mine we go. The Economist, pages 47-48, Aug 23 1997.

Anonymous. Shan't play. The Economist, pages 61-62, Aug 23 1997.

James Anton and Dennis Yao. Standard-setting consortia, antitrust, and high-technology industries. Antitrust Law Journal, 64:247-265, 1995.

Ken Arrow. Economic welfare and the allocation of resources for invention. In Donald M. Lamberton, editor, The Economics of Communication and Information. Edward Elgar, 1997.

Brian W. Arthur. Competing technologies, increasing returns, and lock-in by historical events. Economic Journal, 99(394):116-31, 1989.

Brian W. Arthur. Increasing Returns and Path Dependence in the Economy. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1994.

Brian W. Arthur. Increasing returns and the new world of business. Harvard Business Review, pages 100-109, Jul 1996.

Lawrence M. Ausubel. The failure of competition in the credit card market. American Economic Review, 81(1):50-81, 1991.

Y. Bakos and E. Brynjolfsson. Bundling information. Technical report, Stanford University, 1996.

J. Y. Bakos and Erik Brynjolfsson. Aggregation and disaggregation of information goods: Implications for bundling, site licensing and micropayment systems. In D. Hurley, B. Kahin, and H. Varian, editors, Internet Publishing and Beyond: The Economics of Digital Information and Intellectual Property. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1998.

David Bank. Microsoft's profit tops analysts' expectations. Wall Street Journal, 21 October 1997.

John Perry Barlow. The economy of ideas. Wired, 2.03:85, 1995. http://www.hotwired.com/wired/2.03/features/ economy. ideas.html.

William Baumol, John Panzar, and Robert Willig. Contestable markets and the theory of industry structure. Harcourt Brace Jovanavich, New York, 1982.

Alan Beggs and Paul Klemperer. Multi-period competition with switching costs. Econometrica, 60(3):651-666, 1992.

Mitchel Benson. State Web sites offer firms competition. Wall Street Journal, May 14,:CA1, 1997.

Stanley Besen and Joseph Farrell. The role of the ITU in standardization. Telecommunications Policy, pages 311-321, Aug 1991.

Stanley Besen and Joseph Farrell. Choosing how to compete: Strategies and tactics in standardization. Journal of Economic Perspectives, pages 117-131, 1994.

Stanley M. Besen and Leland Johnson. Compatibility Standards, Competition, and innovation in the Broadcasting Industry. The Rand Corporation, 1986.

Julie Bick. Running a business dots Microsoft style. Hemisphers, pages 44-48, Sep 1997.

Jon Bigness. CUC-HFS merger may form a giant in direct-marketing. Wall Street Journal, May 29 1997.

Karen Blumenthal. How Barney the dinosaur beat extinction, is now rich. Wall Street Journal, page B2, Feb 28 1992.

Mark Boslet. AOL rents retail commissions range from 5% to 60%. Dow Jones Newswires, Jul 28 1997.

David Bowermaster and Bob Sullivan. Bid signaling pervasive in auctions. MSNBC, 1997.

Adam M. Brandenburger and Barry J. Nalebuff. Co-opetition. Doubleday, New York, 1996.

William J. Broad. Study finds public science is pillar of industry. New York Times, May 13:B1, 1997.

Edgar K. Browning. The marginal cost of public funds. The Journal of Political Economy, 84(2):283-298, Apr 1976.

William M. Bulkeley. Little guy sues corporate giant over a Mickey Mouse sweatshirt. Wall Street Journal, page B1, Feb 10 1994.

William M. Bulkeley. Finding targets on CD-ROM phone lists. Wall Street Journal, 22 March 1995.

Jeremy Bulow. Durable-goods monopolists. Journal of Political Economy, pages 314-332, 1982.

Julie Ann Bunn and Paul David. The economics of gateway technologies the network evolution: Lessons from electricity supply history. Information Economics and Policy, 3(2):165-202, 1988.

Christopher Burton. The Radio Revolution. Center for Information Strategy and Policy, Mclean, Virginia, 1997.

David Chappell and David S. Linthicum. ActiveX demystified. BYTE, page 56, Sep 1997.

Ronald Coase. Durability and monopoly. Journal of Law and Economics, 15(1):143-149, 1972.

Wesley Cohen. Appropriating the returns to innovation?? Technical report, University of Iowa??, 1996.

Calmetta Y. Coleman. Supermarkets move into '90s, cutting back on sales and ads. Wall Street Journal, May 29 1997.

Amy Cortese. Sexy? No. Profitable? You bet. Business Week, Nov 11 1996.

Meg Cox. At many auctions, illegal bidding thrives as a longtime practice among dealers. Wall Street Journal, Feb 19 1988.

Brad Cox. Superdistribution? Wired, 2.09:89-92, 1994. http:// www.virtualschool.edu/mon/Cox/CoxWired.html.

Brad Cox. Superdistribution : Objects As Property on the Electronic Frontier. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1996. http: //www.virtualschool.edu/mon/Cox/Publications.html.

Paul David. Clio and the economics of QWERTY. American Economic Review, 75(2):332-337, 1985.

Paul David. Understanding the economics of QWERTY: the necessity of history,. In William Parker, editor, Economic History and the Modern Economist. Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1986.

R. Denerke and Preston McAfee. Damaged goods. Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 5(2):149-174, 1996.

Margaret Anne Doody. The True Story of the Novel. Rutgers University Press, 1996.

Nicholas Economides and Charles Himmelberg. Critical mass and network size with application to the US fax market. Technical report, Stern School of Business, N.Y.U, 1995. http://raven.stern.nyu.edu/networks/papers.html.

Nicholas Economides and Lawrence J. White. Networks and compatibility: Implications for antitrust. European Economic Review, 38:651-662, 1994.

Nicholas Economides and Lawrence J. White. One-way networks, two-way networks, compatibility and antitrust. In David Gabel and David Weiman, editors, Opening Networks to Competition: The Regulation and Pricing of Access. Kluwer Academic Press, 1996.

Nicholas Economides. The economics of networks. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 16(4):673-699, 1996. http://raven.stern.nyu.edu/networks/.

Joseph Farrell and Garth Saloner. Installed base and compatibility: Innovation, product preannouncement, and predation. American Economic Review, 76(4):940-955, 1986.

Joseph Farrell and Garth Saloner. Coordination through committees and markets. Rand Journal of Economics, 19(2):235-252, 1988.

Joseph Farrell and Garth Saloner. Converters, compatibility, and the control of interfaces. Journal of Industrial Economics, 40:9-36, 1992.

Joseph Farrell and Garth Saloner. Converters, compatibility, and the control of interfaces. Journal of Industrial Economics, 40:9-26, 1992.

Joseph Farrell and Carl Shapiro. Dynamic competition with switching costs. Rand Journal of Economics, 19:123-137, 1988.

Joe Farrell and Carl Shapiro. Optimal contracts with lock-in. American Economic Review, 79(1):51-68, 1989.

Joseph Farrell and Carl Shapiro. Standard setting in high-definition television. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Microeconomics, pages 1-93, 1992.

Joseph Farrell, Hunter K. Monroe, and Garth Saloner. The vertical organization of industry: Systems competition versus component competition. Technical report, University of California at Berkeley, 1997.

Joseph Farrell, Hunter K. Monroe, and Garth Saloner. The vertical organization of industry: Systems competition versus component competition. Journal of Industrial Economics, 1998.

David E. Fisher and Marshall Jon Fisher. The color war. Invention & Technology, 12:8-18, 1997.

Robert Forsythe, Forrest Nelson, George R. Neumann, and Jack Wright. Anatomy of an experimental political stock market. American Economic Review, 82(5):1142-1161, Dec 1992.

Amy Friedlander. Emerging Infrastructure: The Growth of Railroads. CNRI, Arlington, VA, 1995.

Amy Friedlander. Power and Light: Electricity in the U.S. Energy Infrastructure: 1870-1940. CNRI, Arlington, VA, 1995.

Amy Friedlander. History of Radio. CNRI, Arlington, VA, 1996.

Amy Friedlander. Natural Monopoly and Universal Service: Telephones and Telegraphs in the U.S. Communications Infrastructure. CNRI, Arlington, VA, 1996.

David Friedman. The just price. In John Eatwell, Murray Milgate, and Peter Newman, editors, The New Palgrave. Macmillan, London, 1987.

Drew Fudenberg and Jean Tirole. Customer poaching and brand switching. Technical report, Department of Economics, Harvard University, 1997.

Drew Fudenberg and Jean Tirole. Upgrades, trade-ins, and buy-backs. Rand Journal of Economics, 1998.

David Gabel. Copy protection. PC Week, pages 35-36, 1985.

H. Landis Gabel, editor. Product Standardization and Competitive Strategy. Elsevier Science Publishers, 1987.

Richard Gilbert and Carl Shapiro. Optimal patent length and breadth. Rand Journal of Economics, 21(1):106-12, Spring 1990.

Richard Gilbert and Carl Shapiro. Antitrust issues in the licensing of intellectual property: The nine no-no's meet the nineties. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, forthcoming, 1998.

Richard Gilbert. Networks, standards, and the use of market dominance: Microsoft 1995. In J. Kwoka and L. White, editors, The Antitrust Revolution: The Role of Economics. Oxford University Press, 1998.

Charles Goldfinger. Electronic money in the United States: Current status, prospects and major issues. Technical report, Fact-finding mission for the Financial Issues Working Group of the European Commission, 1997. http://www.nacha.org/publications/digsig.htm.

Jon Goldstein. Michael bloomberg's wired world. Time Digital, pages 64-67, March 23 1998.

Gene M. Grossman and Alan B. Krueger. Environmental impacts of a North American free trade agreement. Technical report, Department of Economics, Princeton University, 1991.

Andrew S. Grove. Only the Paranoid Survive: How to Exploit the Crisis Points that Challenge Every Company and Career. Currency/Doubleday, 1996.

Annette Hamilton. Microsoft refutes claims of NT server, NT workstation similarities. ZD Anchordesk, September 11 1996. http: //www.zdnet.com/anchordesk/story/story_321.html.

Michael Hammer and James Champy. Reengineering the Corporation: a Manifesto for Business Revolution. Harper Business, New York, 1993.

Quentin Hardy and Bryan Gruley. Payment terms were too easy; firms bid more than they had. Wall Street Journal, xx, 1997.

John R. Hayes. Acquisition is fine, but organic growth is better. Forbes, pages 52-56, Dec 30 1996.

Eric Hellweg. 56-kbps illusions: High-speed access not as widespread as advertised. PC World, page 64, Sep 1997.

Carla Hesse. Publishing and cultural politics in revolutionary Paris, 1789-1810. University of California Press, Berkeley, 1991.

George W. Hilton. American Narrow Gauge Railroads. Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, 1990.

Leland Johnson. Development of High-Definition Television: A Study in U.S.-Japan Trade Relations. RAND, Santa Monica, 1990.

Dorothy Judd v. Citibank. 435 NYS, 2nd series. 107 Misc. 2nd, 526:210-212, 19xx.

Joseph Kattan and Carl Shapiro. Privacy, self-regulation, and antitrust. Technical report, UC Berkeley, 1997.

Joseph Kattan. Market power in the presence of an installed base. Antitrust Law Journal, 62:1-21, 1993.

Michael L. Katz and Carl Shapiro. Network externalities, competition, and compatibility. American Economic Review, 75(3):424-440, 1985.

Michael Katz and Carl Shapiro. Product compatibility choice in a market with technological progress. Oxford Economic Papers, Special Issue on the New Industrial Economics, Nov 1986.

Michael L. Katz and Carl Shapiro. Technology adoption in the presence of network externalities. The Journal of Political Economy, 94(4):822-84, 1986.

Michael Katz and Carl Shapiro. Product introduction with network externalities,. Journal of Industrial Economics, 40:55-84, Mar 1992.

Michael L. Katz and Carl Shapiro. Systems competition and network effects. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8(2):93-115, 1994.

Kevin Kelly. New Rules for the New Economy. Viking Press, New York, 1998.

S. Kierkegaard. The Journals of Soren Kierkegaard. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1938.

Joel Klein. The importance of antitrust enforcement in the new economy. Technical report, US Department of Justice, 1998. http://gopher.usdoj.gov/atr/speeches.

Paul Klemperer. Markets with consumer switching costs. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 102(2):375-394, 1987.

Paul Klemperer. Price wars caused by switching costs. Review of Economic Studies, 56(3):405-420, 1989.

Paul Klemperer. How broad should the scope of a patent be? Rand Journal of Economics, 21(1):113-30, Spring 1990.

Paul Klemperer. Competition when consumers have switching costs: An overview. Review of Economic Studies, 62(4):515-539, 1995.

Paul Klemperer. Competition when consumers have switching costs:an overview with applications to industrial organization, macroeconomics and international trade. Review of Economic Studies, 62:515-539, 1995.

Charles Knight. The Old Printer and the Modern Press. John Murray, London, 1854.

James Lardner. Fast Forward. W. W. Norton & Co., New York, 1987.

Kenneth C. Laudon. Markets and privacy. Communications of the ACM, 39(9):992-104, 1996.

Stephen Lawson. Cisco feels the squeeze. InfoWorld, 19(31):1, Aug 4 1997.

S. J. Leibowitz and Stephen Margolis. The fable of the keys. Journal of Law and Economics, pages 1-26, Apr 1990.

Mark Lemley and David McGowan. Legal implications of network economic effects. California Law Review, 1998.

Michael Lesk. Projections for making money on the Web. In Deborah Hurley, Brian Kahin, and Hal R. Varian, editors, Internet Publishing and Beyond. MIT Press, 1998.

Richard Levin and Sidney Winter. Appropriating the returns from industrial research and development. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 3(0):783-820, 1987.

S. Liebowitz and E. Margolis. Network externality: An uncommon tragedy? Journal of Economic Perspectives, pages 133-150, 1994.

Brian Livingston. More on finding, or not finding, your special web site. InfoWorld, 19(45), 1997.

Robert Lucky. Silicon Dreams: Information, Man, and Machine. St. Martin's Press, New York, 1989.

Fritz Machlup. Knowledge, its Creation, Distribution, and Economic Significance. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1980.

E. Maskin and J. Riley. Monopoly with incomplete information. Rand Journal of Economics, 15:171-96, 1984.

Carmen Matutes and Pierre Regibeau. Mix and match: Product compatibility without network externalities,. Rand Journal of Economics, 19:221-234, 1988.

John McMillan. Selling spectrum rights. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8(3):145-162, 1994.

Richard A. Melcher. Dusting off the Britannica. Business Week, pages 143-146, 1997.

Ryoichi Mori and Masaji Kawahara. Superdistribution: An overview and the current status. Technical Research Reports of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, 89(44), 1989.

Ryoichi Mori. What lies ahead. Byte, pages 346-348, Jan 1989.

David J. Morrow. Debit cards: Popular, handy, risky. New York Times, page A1, Jul 13 1997.

Milton Mueller and Jorge Schement. Universal service from the bottom up: A study of telephone penetration in Camden, New Jersey. The Information Society, 12:273-291, August 1996.

Milton Mueller. Universal Service: Interconnection, Competition, and Monopoly in the Making of the American Telephone System. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1996.

Milton Mueller. Universal service and the telecommunications act : myth made law. Communications of the ACM, 40(3):39-47, Mar 1997.

Francis Narin, Kimberly S. Hamilton, and Dominic Olivastro. Public and private research. Technical report, CHI Research, 1997.

Phillip Nelson. Information and consumer behavior. The Journal of Political Economy, 78(2):311-329, 1970.

Achsah Nesmith. Arduous march towards standardization. Smithsonian, Mar 1985.

Peter G. Neumann. Computer Related Risks. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1995. See also http://catless.ncl.ac.uk/Risks.

William Nordhaus. Invention, Growth, and Welfare. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1969.

Anthony Perkins. Have the rules really changed? Red Herring, page 12, Oct 1997.

A. C. Pigou. The Economics of Welfare. Macmillan, London, 1920.

Paul Resnick and Jim Miller. PICS: Internet access controls without censorship. Communications of the ACM, 39(10):87-93, 1996.

Jack Richard. Letters to the editor. Boardwatch Magazine, page 12, Sep 1997.

Jeffrey Rohlfs. A theory of interdependent demand for a communications service. Bell Journal of Economics, 5(1):16-37, 1974.

John Rust, Richard Palmer, and John H. Miller. Behavior of trading automata in a computerized double auction market. In John Rust and Daniel Friedman, editors, The Double Auction Market: Institutions, Theories, and Evidence, chapter 6, pages 153-196. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1992.

Garth Saloner. Economic issues in computer interface standardization. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 1(1-2):135-156, 1990.

Jared Sandberg. Retailers pay big for prime Internet real estate. Wall Street Journal, page B7, Jul 8 1997.

Thomas Schelling. Micromotives and Macrobehavior. W. W. Norton, New York, 1978.

Michael R. Sesit. New Internet site to offer risk-analysis for investors. Wall Street Journal, page C1, Jul 23 1997.

Carl Shapiro. Antitrust in network industries. Technical report, US Department of Justice, 1996. http://gopher.usdoj.gov/atr/speeches/shapir.mar.

Herbert Simon. Designing organizations for an information-rich world. In Donald M. Lamberton, editor, The Economics of Communication and Information. Edward Elgar, 1997.

Itamar Simonson and Amos Tversky. Choice in context: Tradeoff contrast and extremeness aversion. Journal of Marketing Research, 29:281-295, 1992.

Gerald E. Smith and Thomas T. Nagle. Frames of reference and buyers' perception of price and value. California Management Review, 38(1):98-116, 1995.

Malcolm Sparrow. Programmed for fraud. Wall Street Journal, Oct 18 1996.

M. Spence. Nonlinear prices and welfare. Journal of Public Economics, 8:1-18, 1976.

Mark Stefik. Trusted systems. Scientific American, Mar 1997. http://www.sciam.com/0397issue/0397stefik.html.

Jean Tirole. Theory of Industrial Organization. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1988.

Joseph B. Treaster. Bond investors gamble on severe weather. New York Times, page C1, Aug 6 1997.

Gordon Mah Ung. End of concurrent licensing could be costly to Microsoft customers. Computerworld, Nov 7 1997.

Hal R. Varian and Richard Roehl. Circulating libraries and video rental stores. Technical report, UC Berkeley, 1996. http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/~hal.

Hal R. Varian and Richard Roehl. Circulating libraries and video rental stores. Technical report, UC Berkeley, 1997. http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/~hal.

Hal R. Varian. A model of sales. American Economic Review, 70:651-659, 1980.

Hal R. Varian. Price discrimination and social welfare. American Economic Review, 75(4):870-875, 1985.

Hal R. Varian. Price discrimination. In Richard Schmalensee and Robert Willig, editors, Handbook of Industrial Organization. North-Holland Press, Amsterdam, 1989.

Hal R. Varian. Pricing information goods. In Research Libraries Group, editor, Scholarship of the New Information Environment Proceedings. Research Libraries Group, Washington, DC, 1995.

Hal R. Varian. Differential prices and efficiency. First Monday, 1(2), 1996. http://www.firstmonday.dk.

Hal R. Varian. Economic aspects of privacy. Technical report, UC Berkeley, 1996. http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/~hal.

Hal R. Varian. Intermediate Microeconomics. W. W. Norton & Co., New York, 1996.

Hal R. Varian. Versioning information goods. In Deborah Hurley, Brian Kahin, and Hal R. Varian, editors, Internet Publishing and Beyond. MIT Press, 1998.

Mitch Wagner. Online retailers buddy up. Wall Street Journal, Sep 15 1997.

Rick Wartzman. The Virtual Emporium is one of a kind--for now. Wall Street Journal, page CA2, Apr 23 1997. (California edition only).

Ian Watt. The Rise of the Novel. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 1957.

Thomas E. Weber. AOL plans to collect rent not commission from stores. Wall Street Journal, Jul 28 1997.

Oliver E. Williamson. Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications. The Free Press, New York, 1975.

Robert B. Wilson. Nonlinear Pricing. Oxford University Press, New York, 1993.

Nick Wingfield. Microsoft says it will buy E-mail start-up in stock deal. Wall Street Journal, 1998.

Karen Winkler. Academic presses look to the Internet to save scholarly monographs. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 12 September 1997.

M. A. Wright. Security controls in ATM systems. Computer Fraud and Security Bulletin, pages 11-14, 1991.

Bar Ziegler and Don Clark. Microsoft gives technology away to beat rival. Wall Street Journal, page B1, Oct 2 1996.